Risk Landscape: Coverage Trends to Watch

Being aware of your company’s new and changing risks is critical for sound risk management. As the year progresses, we have identified growing risks facing
companies, and their directors and officers, that are likely to impact policyholders. These risks include cybersecurity, Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) lawsuits, drones, wage and hour lawsuits and food recalls. The risks and issues to watch out for are expanded below:

Cybersecurity

Cyberattacks against businesses doubled in 2015 and are expected to continue to increase as attackers become even more sophisticated. Watch out for:

Phishing scams and social engineering fraud. In social engineering scams, hackers utilize phishing, purporting to be legitimate employees or third parties try to trick businesses into wiring funds or allow access to their systems. Although many businesses have crime insurance that covers “computer systems fraud,” ambiguous provisions or liability limits may restrict coverage. SomCompliancee courts have held that fraud coverage applies only when intrusions are unauthorized, but not when an unwitting employee falls prey to an online scam.

Data breaches. Companies should also be conscious about their coverage for data breaches, which increasingly present significant exposures. Insurers often contest whether data breaches constitute “publication” of private information, and, if so, whether an insurer’s duty to defend applies. This is particularly important as the storage of consumer data is a lynchpin of many businesses’ operations and marketing.
Businesses need to ensure that their commercial insurance policies adequately cover their business risks and consider purchasing dedicated cyber policies.

Coverage for TCPA claims

Certain efforts to engage with consumers may come at a steep cost. Under the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA), businesses that send unsolicited faxes, voice calls or text messages to consumers may be held liable for at least $500 per violation.

General liability coverage of TCPA claims. In recent years, commercial general liability (CGL) insurers have increasingly added broad exclusions to their policies for TCPA claims. Moreover, courts are split on whether “right to privacy” coverage in CGL policies cover these claims. Some courts uphold coverage only for losses from incidents that divulge confidential information (secrecy-related claims), whereas others uphold coverage for unsolicited communications, even if they do not republish confidential information.
While such coverage may be restricted under CGL policies, policyholders may have coverage under their directors’ and officers’ (D&O) insurance.

LA Lakers test case for D&O coverage. In 2016, the Ninth Circuit will likely address this issue in an appeal by the Los Angeles Lakers. The franchise’s marketing campaign included sending unsolicited text messages to fans. When sued under the TCPA, the franchise sought coverage for its defense costs under its D&O policy. In April 2015, a California federal court rejected coverage, finding that the policy’s “invasion of privacy” exclusion precluded coverage.
As businesses seek to engage consumers directly through various media, they should consider whether their insurance protects against TCPA claims.

UAVs and Insurance in 2016

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, promise to revolutionize not just commerce but insurance as well. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimates that, by 2023, annual global spending on UAVs will total $11.5 billion, and by 2020, about 30,000 commercial and civil drones will dot the skies.

Drone property loss and liability. The rise of drones raises several risks. The most obvious of these risks are loss of property and third-party liability. Use of drones for package or cargo delivery raises the risk of damage to the UAV itself—or its payload, which is usually the bigger loss. As shown by recent news reports and the first lawsuit, Boggs v. Merideth (W.D. Ky.), operators face liability for costs of defense and settlements or judgments payable to third-party claimants when UAVs go astray. With drones’ ability to film and collect data, other risks include privacy-related claims and data breach and hacking.

New coverage provisions. In June 2015, the Insurance Services Office, Inc. (ISO), approved new coverage provisions addressing commercial use of drones. The new ISO provisions modify standard CGL and umbrella/excess liability policy forms and merit close consideration by policyholders.
Because these new provisions are untested, policyholders should review them carefully against their entire insurance program and consult with insurance advisors to ensure that new provisions or policies provide the protection needed. Companies using UAVs should consider the aviation insurance market and also assess the need for cyber insurance coverage for privacy and data-breach exposures.

Wage-and-Hour Lawsuits

Cases alleging violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) have shot up in recent years. In 2015, almost 9,000 FLSA cases were filed in federal court, up more than 10% from 2014, and 30% from 2011. State courts have also experienced high volumes of wage-and-hour cases. California and New York recently enacted laws that allow directors, officers, and in New York, “top 10 shareholders” to be held personally liable for wage-and-hour violations.
Traditionally, companies have looked to their employment practices liability (EPL) and D&O insurance to protect against the defense and liability costs in wage-and-hour lawsuits. However, EPL insurance policies today regularly exclude coverage for such claims. Unlike EPL policies, D&O policies do not routinely exclude such coverage, but are including such exclusions with increasing frequency. As a result, policyholders must review D&O policies carefully to ensure that they protect against the threats posed by such claims.
Brokers and insurers have been developing new insurance products that specifically address these increasing wage-and-hour exposures. Policyholders, particularly those with significant operations in California and New York, should consider these newly emerging wage-and-hour specialty policies to ensure that they are adequately protected.

Food Contamination and Recall Coverage

The number of food product recalls for alleged contamination, undisclosed ingredients and other mislabeling issues also has risen dramatically. Although CGL and business property insurance policies provide some protection against liability for food contamination and recalls, savvy food companies should also consider specialized recall and contamination coverage.
These specialized policies may cover the reasonable costs that a policyholder incurs, for example, to examine its products for contamination, announce and institute a product recall, safely destroy contaminated products, and reimburse distributors and retailers for down-stream recall costs. Such policies often include crisis management coverage to help the policyholder mitigate negative media reports.

Varying types of special coverage. Because recall and contamination policies are not standardized, individual insurers offer differing policy terms and levels of coverage. Companies contemplating the addition of such coverage, or pursuing coverage under an existing policy, should closely examine the policy to understand the scope and limitations of coverage.

Items to watch. When purchasing such coverage, food companies need to identify their primary risks and negotiate the broadest possible coverage. In addition, because such policies often include very strict notice requirements, policyholders should give notice as soon as a recall arises to avoid coverage denial on late notice grounds.

Christina Buschmann, Linda Powell and Adrian Torres, Perkins Coie Insurance Recovery attorneys, also contributed to this article.

Cybersecurity, Product Recall and Drones Top List of Emerging Casualty Risks

The cybersecurity insurance industry is booming, with demand for this specialty coverage vastly outpacing any other emerging risk line, according to a new survey by London-based broker RKH Specialty. In fact, 70% of the insurance professionals surveyed listed cyber as the top casualty exposure.

The brokers, agents, insurers and risk managers RKH queried after April’s RIMS 2015 conference said their top casualty concerns after cyber are product recall and drones (11% each), with others including e-cigarettes, autonomous vehicles and telematics totaling only eight percent.

RKH Specialty Study Graph

“Losses stemming from cyber-related attacks and business interruption can be catastrophic for individual businesses,” said Barnaby Rugge-Price, RKH Specialty’s CEO. “Healthcare and retail have been the major buyers in the cyber space to date but we are seeing an increasing conversion rate across the whole of our portfolio. After a number of years of looking at the offering, clients are increasingly deciding to purchase the cover as the product has improved and the frequency of attacks has continued to increase. There has also been a heightened focus on the business interruption aspect, where cyber attacks can cause whole facilities to shut down. But whether cyber related or not, any interruption to the supply chain can cause a disproportionate loss. The survey highlights the importance of specialist insurance for a whole host of emerging risks.”

Turning specifically to property exposures, supply chain disruption was identified by 61% as the top risk, followed by flood (30%) and tornadoes (9%). The findings reflect a growing recognition of the potential exposures that longer and more complex supply chains introduce, the firm said.

The brokerage also asked insurance professionals what they think clients are and will be most concerned about when evaluating a broker’s service, and in turn, what brokers will need to focus on to stay competitive. They predict:

RKH Specialty broker service

FAA Announces Drone Testing Partnerships Beyond Current Regulations

Drone regulations FAA

Yesterday, the Federal Aviation Administration announced three partnerships with companies to expand the operation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in an initiative the agency is calling the Pathfinder program.

U.S.-based drone maker PrecisionHawk will be exploring the possibilities of flights over agriculture while testing tracking and a system for drones and planes to remain aware of each other in flight to avoid collisions. CNN will be testing the use of drones for newsgathering in urban areas where drones will remain in the line of sight of operators. BNSF Railroad, owned by Warren Buffet’s Berkshire Hathaway, received permission to test drone operations outside of the operator’s visual line of sight. The company will “explore command-and-control challenges of using UAS to inspect rail system infrastructure,” the FAA reported.

“Government has some of the best and brightest minds in aviation, but we can’t operate in a vacuum,” said U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx. “This is a big job, and we’ll get to our goal of safe, widespread UAS integration more quickly by leveraging the resources and expertise of the industry.”

To that end, Pathfinder will allow these corporate entities to research operations that push the boundaries of the recent draft rules released regarding small unmanned aircraft, namely by operating both within and without the visual line of sight requirements currently mandated by the FAA.

“Even as we pursue our current rulemaking effort for small unmanned aircraft, we must continue to actively look for future ways to expand non-recreational UAS uses,” said FAA Administrator Michael Huerta, who announced the initiative at a conference held Wednesday by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International. “This new initiative involving three leading U.S. companies will help us anticipate and address the needs of the evolving UAS industry.”

This effort is also the first step in realizing some companies’ grander aspirations for drone use, such as the package delivery applications being pursued by Amazon. That being said, the information gathered by these companies will merely provide data to inform future FAA regulations, which are still pending and may only approve broader operations in a few years. Other companies looking into similar applications that are beyond the scope of current draft regulations would still need to apply for and receive a Section 333 exemption from the FAA. While about 300 of these requests have been granted, the agency has received repeated criticism for an exceptionally slow and sometimes mystifying review process.

“The impact of the Pathfinder Program could be profound for several reasons — perhaps most importantly, it shows the FAA is serious about moving quickly to safely and practically integrate commercial drone use in the U.S.,” said Anthony Mormino, senior legal counsel at Swiss Re. “Allowing drone flights beyond the sight of a drone operator is considered the key to unlocking the true potential of commercial drone use.  This collaboration could impact the future rules promulgated by the FAA regarding the line of sight requirement for commercial drones.”

Such developments could also significantly impact insurers. As discussed in “Drones Take Flight,” the April cover story of Risk Management magazine, one of the most promising near-future applications for UAVs could be in the insurance industry in the wake of natural catastrophes or other major claim events. “Reducing or eliminating the visual line of sight limitation on commercial drone use will allow insurance companies to employ UAVs to their fullest extent in insurance underwriting and claims management,” Mormino said. “Consider that the FAA has already granted a number of insurance companies permission to test and use UAVs for insurance inspection purposes. These companies include AIG, State Farm, Erie Insurance Group, and USAA. They plan to use UAVs, for example, to more quickly process insurance claims after natural disasters by allowing them to inspect damage —especially in remote locations—in real time. Insurers also plan to use UAVs to obtain imagery and data for use in underwriting, such as roof inspections. Until the FAA mitigates the visual line of sight limitation, however, the foregoing insurance uses for UAVs will remain drastically limited. Success for the FAA’s new Pathfinder program would open the door to potentially even larger scale use of UAVs by insurance companies.”

The implications for insurers also extend to the products and pricing offered. “First, the current dearth of UAS loss data makes it difficult for insurance companies to properly price insurance policies covering drone use,” said Carol Kreiling, senior claim manager at Swiss Re. “It is therefore no surprise that only a handful of insurers actually issue stand alone drone insurance coverage, such as Zurich Insurance in Canada, and Tokio Marine in the Lloyd’s of London market. An increase in commercial use of drones in the US could provide a steady flow of data that would allow more insurers to price and issue coverage for use of UAS. On the other hand, if the Pathfinder program’s goals are fulfilled—to find ways to safely use UAVs outside a pilot’s visual line of sight—increased remote use of drones could raise risk profiles for insurance coverage.”

At the conference, Huerta also announced a new smartphone app called B4UFLY, designed to help model aircraft and UAS users know if it is safe and legal to fly in their current or planned location by pairing geolocations with the relevant restrictions and requirements.

For more about drones, UAV regulations, and the potential impact these machines may have on the insurance industry, check out “Drones Take Flight,” the April cover story of Risk Management magazine.

Security Technology: Reducing Risk for Law Enforcement

 

Nowhere is the work environment more unpredictable than on the front line. Front line employees, whether they work in customer service or high-level security, are constantly exposed to the biggest element of risk—the human element. Working in the field exposes employees to a variety of unpredictable factors, interacting with the public and operating in different environments, making it difficult to predict risks and properly protect employees from external threats.

This is particularly true in law enforcement and security industries, with “police officer” being named as one of America’s most dangerous jobs. It’s no wonder organizations (both public and private sector) are looking for solutions, especially when considering what is at risk. Obviously, employee safety is of paramount concern to any organization and should always be top priority, but there are other elements to consider. Attacks on employees or property can result in huge legal costs, and without physical evidence, it can be hard to recoup this loss. Businesses must also consider the risk to their public image.

To help fight crime and reduce the risks to their front line workers, many government law enforcement agencies and private security organizations are using technology solutions. These solutions, such as advanced security recordings and tracking devices, can act as deterrents. While providing law enforcement officers with more protection, they also help collect irrefutable evidence to protect the company from a legal perspective.

Personal security cameras

These personal security cameras have been adopted by numerous law enforcement agencies around the world, including the City of Clare Police Department in Michigan. The body-worn cameras are attached to the police officer’s uniform—recording footage and displaying a live feed on their front-facing screen. This works in two ways, by providing reliable video evidence from the officer’s perspective of the crime scene and also acting as a deterrent. This approach of alerting members of the public to the fact that they’re being recorded has been shown to reduce the occurrence of criminal activity.

GPS

While GPS systems have existed for a long time, more and more law enforcement agencies are taking full advantage of their benefits—particularly when it comes to pursuing vehicles. Tested with police departments in Arizona and Florida, GPS ‘darts’ are currently in development to reduce the risk to police officers and the general public posed by high speed traffic pursuits. The darts are fired using compressed air and discreetly attach to the vehicle being chased. This means the officer in pursuit can track the vehicle remotely, without the need to initiate a chase at dangerous speeds.

Drones

Perhaps the most controversial of these technologies, drone surveillance has been a hot topic in recent news. While opposition to their use is primarily in relation to privacy or military usage, for law enforcement they provide an affordable and convenient alternative to police helicopters. These small portable flying police drones are equipped with HD surveillance cameras, providing a birds-eye view of crime scenes or events. This live video feed can be monitored and recorded remotely, allowing officers to survey any danger in the area before making a physical appearance. Like body worn cameras, the video footage can also serve as valuable evidence in court. The future of drone technologies being adopted by police departments remains up in the air, however, as some public opposition looks to restrict their usage.

Gunshot detection

Possibly the most innovative of these technologies, gunfire locators or gunshot detection systems have proven to be extremely valuable in protecting front line workers and increasing response time in high gun crime areas. Already used in many cities throughout the United States, these systems use numerous super sensitive microphones (dispersed through a geographic area and connected to a central processor) to immediately alert police to the exact location, and even direction, of gunshots fired in the area.

While some of these technologies have yet to reach their potential, their benefits suggest it won’t be long before they’re fully integrated into police and security industries—and seeing widespread use around the world. While tracking devices and security cameras are nothing new, their improvement and innovative applications in recent years have made them invaluable. From collecting evidence to improving safety for front line workers, these high-tech security solutions effectively reduce risks faced by organizations operating in the sector.